sábado, 31 de marzo de 2012

Infinitive and Gerund

Infinitive and Gerund


There are certain words in English that are usually followed by an infinitive or gerund. If you are not sure whether to use the infinitive or gerund, check out our lists or look the words up in a dictionary.
Infinitive
Use
Certain words are followed by an infinite verb with or without ‘to’.
Use and Word Lists
Example
To know you is to love you.
Why not go to the cinema?
I can swim.
He wants to swim.
They don’t know how to swim.
He made her swim.
They wanted him to swim.
It’s easier to swim downstream.
We made a promise to swim. (derived from the verb ‘to promise’)
Gerund
Form
ing form of the verb
Exceptions in Spelling
Use
Certain words are followed by an Ing-Form.
Use and Word Lists
Example
as the subject of a clause
Cycling is good for your health.
He’s afraid of going by plane.
Before going to bed he turned off the lights.
I enjoy cooking.
I am looking forward to seeing you again.
We had problems finding our way back home.
Words followed either by Infinitive or Ing-Form
Use and Word Lists
Example
I started to read. / I started reading.
She forbids us to talk. / She forbids talking.
He stopped to smoke. / He stopped smoking.
I saw him go up the stairs. / I saw him going up the stairs.



nfinitive as the Subject of a Clause (followed by the verbs below)
Example: To follow his advice seemed logical.
§  be
§  seem
§  appear


Infinitive after certain Expressions (without 'to')
Example: I would rather stay at home.
§  had better
§  would rather
§  would sooner
§  why not
§  why should I/you/… [not]

Infinitive after certain Verbs (without to)
Example: We must stay at home.
§  can
§  dare (also with to)
§  do
§  help (also with to)
§  let
§  may
§  must
§  need (also with to)
§  shall
§  should
§  will


Infinitive after certain Verbs (with to)
Example: He refused to pay the bill.
§  afford
§  agree
§  aim
§  appear
§  arrange
§  attempt
§  be determined
§  beg
§  care
§  choose
§  claim
§  condescend
§  consent
§  dare (also without to)
§  decide
§  demand
§  deserve
§  determine
§  endeavour
§  expect
§  fail
§  guarantee
§  happen
§  have
§  help (also without to)
§  hesitate
§  hope
§  learn
§  long
§  manage
§  mean
§  need (also without to)
§  neglect
§  offer
§  ought
§  plan
§  prepare
§  pretend
§  proceed
§  promise
§  refuse
§  resolve
§  seem
§  stop
§  swear
§  tend
§  threaten
§  trouble
§  undertake
§  used
§  volunteer
§  vow
§  want
§  wish
§  would hate
§  would like
§  would love
§  would prefer

Infinitive after certain Verbs with Interrogative (how, if, what, where, whether)
Example: We didn't remember where to meet.
§  ask
§  advise + Objekt
§  consider
§  decide
§  explain
§  find out
§  forget
§  know
§  learn
§  remember
§  see
§  show
§  teach
§  tell + object
§  understand
§  wonder





Infinitive after certain Verbs with an Object (without 'to')
Example: We heard him scream.
§  let
§  make

Infinitive after certain Verbs with an Object (with 'to')
Example: She got me to wash the dishes.
§  advise
§  allow
§  ask
§  beg
§  cause
§  enable
§  encourage
§  expect
§  forbid
§  force
§  get
§  help
§  invite
§  mean
§  order
§  permit
§  persuade
§  recommend
§  remind
§  teach
§  tell
§  want
§  warn
§  would hate
§  would like
§  would love
§  would prefer

Infinitive after certain Adjectives
Example: It was impossible to go back.
§  amazed
§  amazing
§  angry
§  astonished
§  astonishing
§  awkward
§  brave
§  careless
§  clever
§  cowardly
§  crazy
§  delighted
§  difficult
§  disappointed
§  disgusted
§  easy
§  extraordinary
§  funny
§  generous
§  glad
§  happy
§  hard
§  honest
§  horrified
§  impossible
§  kind
§  nice
§  odd
§  pointless
§  relieved
§  ridiculous
§  rude
§  sad
§  selfish
§  silly
§  sorry
§  strange
§  stupid
§  surprised
§  wicked
§  wise

nfinitive after certain Nouns
Example: There was no need to get angry.
§  effort
§  agreement
§  aim
§  appearance
§  arrangement
§  attempt
§  choice
§  claim
§  decision
§  determination
§  expectation
§  failure
§  guarantee
§  hesitation
§  hope
§  longing
§  need
§  neglect
§  offer
§  plan
§  preparation
§  procedure
§  promise
§  refusal
§  resolution
§  tendency
§  threat
§  trouble
§  try

Gerund

Adjectives (with Prepositions) followed by the Gerund
Example: I am interested in visiting the museum.
§  afraid of
§  angry about / at
§  bad at
§  busy
§  clever at
§  crazy about
§  disappointed about
§  excited about
§  famous for
§  fond of
§  glad about
§  good at
§  impressed by
§  interested in
§  keen on
§  like
§  near
§  proud of
§  sick of
§  sorry about
§  tired of
§  worried about
§  worth
§   
Präpositions followed by the Gerund
Example: Instead of studying for her exams, she went out every night.
§  about (in 'how/what about')
§  after
§  apart from
§  because of
§  before
§  by
§  in
§  in spite of
§  instead of
§  on
§  without
§   
Verbs followed by the Gerund
Example: I enjoy enjoy cooking.
§  admit
§  advise
§  allow
§  appreciate
§  avoid
§  can't help
§  can't stand
§  consider
§  delay
§  deny
§  dislike
§  enjoy
§  escape
§  fancy
§  finish
§  go (in go swimming)
§  imagine
§  involve
§  keep
§  mention
§  mind
§  miss
§  permit
§  postpone
§  practise
§  reject
§  resist
§  risk
§  stop
§  suggest
§  understand
§  waste time / money
Verbs with Prepositions followed by the Gerund
Example: I'm looking forward to seeing you again soon.
§  accuse of
§  adjust to
§  agree with
§  apologize for
§  approve of
§  ask about
§  ask for
§  begin by
§  believe in
§  be used to
§  blame for
§  care for
§  carry on
§  complain about
§  concentrate on
§  congratulate on
§  consist of
§  cope with
§  decide against
§  decide for
§  depend on
§  die of
§  dream about / of
§  escape from
§  feel like
§  forgive for
§  give up
§  insist on
§  keep on
§  look forward to
§  object to
§  pay for
§  prevent sb. from
§  protect from
§  put off
§  rely on
§  spend money on
§  spend time on
§  succeed in
§  suspect of
§  take part in
§  talk about / of
§  thank for
§  think of
§  use for
§  warn against
§  worry about
§   
Nouns / Nouns with Prepositions followed by the Gerund
Example: There's no point in waiting any longer.
§  advantage of
§  alternative of
§  chance of
§  choice between
§  danger of
§  difficulty in
§  doubt about
§  experience in
§  fun
§  hope of
§  idea of
§  interest in
§  opportunity of
§  place for
§  pleasure in
§  point in
§  possibility of
§  problem
§  reason for
§  trouble
§  trouble in
§  use
§  way of
§  waste of money
§  waste of time


Words followed either by Infinitive or Ing-Form

Words with the same meaning
Example: I started to read. / I started reading.
§  attempt
§  begin
§  bother
§  cannot bear
§  cease
§  continue
§  hate
§  intend
§  love
§  prefer
§  start


Words with the same meaning but different use




Word
Infinitive - with an object
Gerund – without an object
advise
I advise you to go by bus.
I advise going by bus.
allow / permit
He allowed her to take the car.
He allowed taking the car.
forbid
She forbids us to smoke.
She forbids smoking.
Words with a different meaning
Word
Infinitive meaning
Gerund meaning
forget / remember
with regard to the future
Remember to switch off the lights.
with regard to the past
Do you remember switching off the lights?
go on
start something new
Go on to read.
continue with the same action
Go on reading.
regret
with regard to the future
I regret to say that.
with regard to the past
I regret saying that.
stop
interrupt another action
I stopped to smoke.
terminate
I stopped smoking.
try
do something complicated
Try to solve this riddle.
do it and see what happens
Try talking to him.

Infinitive or Present Participle
Gerund and present participle are not exactly the same. As this chapter is about when to use the infinitive and when to use the ing-form, however, we have also listed words here that can be used either with the infinitive or the present participle. (for more information on the present participle see participles)
Words
Infinitive meaning
Gerund meaning
feel
hear
see
Emphasises that the action is completed.
Example: I saw him go up the stairs. (i)
Action can be completed, but not necessarily.
Example: I saw him going up the stairs. (i)
go
come
expresses a purpose
Example: She is coming to show us the pictures.
in connection with activities
Example: Let’s go shopping / dancing.


Exercise on Infinitive and Gerund
Principio del formulario
Infinitive with / without to
Choose the correct form (infinitive with or without to).
1.     e.g.   You must ---him.(MEET)   
2.     I want -------- you a secret.(TELL)
3.     We should ------- them.(HELP)
4.     They can ------- another biscuit.(HAVE)
5.     We will --------- for you.(WAIT)
6.     He has ----- up early.(GET)
7.     May I -------- the film? (WATCH)
8.     They would not -------- this. (DO)
9.     I would like -------- shopping in the afternoon.(GO)
10.   She doesn't -------- football.(PLAY)

Exercise on Infinitive and Gerund
Principio del formulario
Infinitive Constructions
After a schooltrip to London, the pupils tell their parents what they have seen and done.
Complete the sentences using infinitive constructions. Remember that the verb before the Infinitive Construction must be in Simple Past. The first sentence is given as an example.
1.     On our first day in London, our guide (tell us / what / do) --------- in London.
2.     She (show us / where / catch) ---------- the nearest bus or underground.
3.     We also (learn / how / buy) --------- tickets for the London underground.
4.     On our second day, we (not know / whether / go) ----------- on a sight-seeing tour.
5.     We (ask our guide / where / get) ---------- tickets for the sight-seeing tours.
6.     She (explain / where / find) ----------- the tour guides and (how much / pay) --------- for a sight-seeing tour.
7.     On the sight-seeing tour we (find out / how / hop ---------- off and on the busses to see as much of London as possible.
8.     We soon (know / which bus / wait for) --------- at the stop.
9.     We only (wonder / what / visit) --------- first.


Gerund


Exercise on Gerund
Complete the sentences with the gerund form of the verbs in parentheses.
1.     She is good at (dance) -----.
2.     He is crazy about (sing) --------.
3.     I don't like (play) -------- cards.
4.     They are afraid of (swim) --------- in the sea.
5.     You should give up (smoke) ---------.
6.     Sam dreams of (be) ------------ a popstar.
7.     He is interested in (make) ----------- friends.
8.     My uncle is afraid of (go) ---------- by plane.
9.     We insist on (cook) --------- the dinner ourselves.


Gerund used as a subject
Complete the sentences with the gerund form of the verbs in parentheses.
1.     (cook) -------- is one of her hobbies.
2.     (cycle) ---------- is fun.
3.     (Get) --------- a good job is not easy.
4.     (Find) ---------- a parking space is quite difficult in this area.
5.     (drive) --------- becomes more and more expensive.
6.     No (smoke) --------- in this area.
7.     (work) --------- overtime is quite common in this company.
8.     (eat) ------------- fruits and vegetables is good for your health.
9.     (make) ----------- fun of other people is not nice.
10.   (learn) --------- about other cultures makes people more tolerant.

Infinitive / Gerund

Infinitive or Gerund
Choose the correct form (infinitive with or without to or gerund).
1.     We can ----- him. TRUST/TOTRUST/TRUSTING
2.     I am glad --------- you. SEE/TO SEE/SEEING
3.     Give up ----------. SMOKE/TO SMOKE/SMOKING
4.     It is difficult ---------- the question. ANSWER/TO ANSWER/ANSWERING
5.     I enjoy ------------ with you. BE/TO BE/BEING
6.     John is fond of -------- ice-cream. EAT/TO EAT/EATING
7.     We will -------- famous one day. BE/TO BE/BEING
8.     I am interested in ---------- karate. LEARN/TO LEARN/LEARNING
9.     We cannot --------- our car here.PARK/TO PARK/PARKING
10.   Gareth is bad at ---------- compliments.GIVE/TO GIVE/GIVING

Infinitive or Gerund
Choose the correct form (infinitive with or without to or gerund).
1.     We managed arrive/to arrive/arriving in time.
2.     We asked her repeat/to repeat/repeating her question.
3.     He insisted on pay/to pay/paying the bill.
4.     I used get/to get/getting up early.
5.     I am used to get /getting  up early.
6.     I would rather write stay/to stay/staying at home.
7.     I spent a lot of time write/to write/writing  the essay.
8.     Why should they do/to do/doing this?
9.     I am looking forward to hear/to hear/hearing from you soon.
10.   You had better take/to take/taking the bus.

Exercise on Infinitive and Gerund
Principio del formulario
Infinitive or Gerund
Choose the correct form (infinitive with or without to or gerund).
1.     The song made me smile/to smile/smiling.
2.     What about  eat/toe at/eating out tonight?
3.     He swore never do/to do/doing that again.
4.     How dare you say/to say/saying that?
5.     Do you mind open/to open/opening the window?
6.     It's no problem pick/to pick/picking you up at 9 o'clock.
7.     Let them go/to go/ going.
8.     It was rather wicked threaten/to threaten/treating her like that.
9.     She got an offer work/to work/working in Canada.
10.   Can you feel the spider crawl/to crawl/crawling up your back?

Exercise – Infinitive or Gerund (Mix)
Infinitive or Gerund? - Which is correct?
1.     When you come to the crossroads - stop there. 
 Remember to stop at the crossroads.
 Remember stopping at the crossroads.
 Both possibilities are correct.
2.     Yesterday she read the first pages of her new book. 
 She began to read her new book.
 She began reading her new book.
 Both possibilities are correct.
3.     I was talking to Marc. But when my boyfriend came in, I could not talk to Marc anymore. 
 I stopped to talk to him.
 I stopped talking to him.
 Both possibilities are correct.
4.     We might go to England next year. 
 We intend to spend our holiday in England.
 We intend spending our holiday in England.
 Both possibilities are correct.
5.     I wanted to write a letter, but I didn't know what to write. (So in the end, I didn't write one.) 
 I tried to write a letter.
 I tried writing a letter.
 Both possibilities are correct.
6.     I am sorry now for something I said earlier on. 
 I regret to say this.
 I regret saying this.
 Both possibilities are correct.
7.     She read the text. Then she stopped. Now I want her to continue with the text. 
 Go on to read.
 Go on reading.
 Both possibilities are correct.
8.     You think your computer does not work, but you just haven't switched on the monitor yet. 
 Your computer does not work? Try to switch on the monitor.
 Your computer does not work? Tryswitching on the monitor.
 Both possibilities are correct.
9.     The joke was so funny, that he bursted out in laughter. 
 He started to laugh.
 He started laughing.
 Both possibilities are correct.
10.   Yesterday I remembered that last year I got sick on your carpet. 
 I remembered to get sick on your carpet.
 I remembered getting sick on your carpet.
 
Both possibilities are correct.

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